A multiple birth occurs when more than one fetus is carried in a single pregnancy. Different names for multiple births are used, depending on the number of offspring. Common multiples are two and three, known as twins and triplets.
A Cesarean section (C-section) is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made through a mother’s abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies.
Vaginal Delivery after Cesarean Section
Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) refers to the practice of delivering a baby vaginally after a previous baby has been delivered through cesarean section (surgically). Approximately 60 – 80% of women opting for VBAC will successfully give birth vaginally, which is comparable to the overall vaginal delivery rate in the United States in 2010.
First Trimester Screening
The First Trimester Screen is a noninvasive evaluation that combines a maternal blood screening test with an ultrasound evaluation of the fetus to identify risk for specific chromosomal abnormalities, including Down Syndrome Trisomy-21 and Trisomy-18.
In addition to screening for these abnormalities, a portion of the test (known as the nuchal translucency) can assist in identifying other significant fetal abnormalities, such as cardiac disorders. The screening test does not detect neural tube defects.
Obstetric ultrasonography is the application of medical ultrasonography to obstetrics, in which sonography is used to visualize the embryo or fetus in its mother’s uterus (womb). The procedure yields a variety of information regarding the health of the mother and of the fetus, the progress of the pregnancy, and further information on the baby.
Antenatal testing describes procedures performed during pregnancy to detect health problems in the growing fetus; establish characteristics such as fetal age or weight; or diagnose any material conditions that may affect fetal development.
All routine Annual Exams
The importance of an annual GYN visit is to detect and treat any new or ongoing health problems in addition to helping prevent future ones from developing.
In fact, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) states that women should have an annual GYN exam whether they need a Pap Test or not.
Contraception of all types
Contraceptives are devices, techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization. Barrier contraceptives are devices which attempt to prevent pregnancy by physically preventing sperm from entering the uterus. Devices in common use include condoms, female condoms, cervical caps, and diaphragms.
Hormonal contraceptives inhibit female ovulation or fertilization. These include injectable and oral contraceptives. The most common hormonal contraceptives are the combined oral contraceptive pill, commonly referred as “The Pill”, which includes a combination of an estrogen and a progestin (progestogen), and the minipill that contains only synthetic progestogens and do not contain estrogen. Currently, hormonal contraceptive options are available only to females.
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a method of birth control that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. All IUDs have a string that extends through the opening of the cervix into the vagina. The string allows a woman to check that the IUD is in place. It also allows a health professional to remove the device at the woman’s request or at the end of its effectiveness (usually anywhere from 5 to 10 years, depending on the type). The IUD is very effective at preventing pregnancy. See more about the Mirena IUD.
Sterilization is a permanent form of providing contraception using surgical techniques, such as tubal ligation for females and vasectomy for males, to alter the reproductive function of the sex organs.
Infertility Testing and Treatment
Millions of women face infertility. If you are having trouble getting pregnant or staying pregnant, you are not alone. The good news is that many women with fertility problems go on to have babies.
There are many ways to test for female infertility. Ovulation problems are one common cause of female infertility. Treatment and fertility counselling is available.
Gynecological surgery refers to surgery on the female reproductive system. It includes procedures for benign conditions, cancer, infertility, incontinence, and various other conditions.
Laparoscopy is direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity, ovaries, outside of the tubes and uterus by using a laparoscope. The laparoscope is an instrument somewhat like a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system which brings light into the abdomen.
Laser & Robotic Procedures
Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures.
Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome both the limitations of minimally invasive surgery or to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery.
Vaginal prolapse is a common condition where the bladder, uterus and or bowel protrudes into the vagina. This can cause symptoms such as a sensation of a vaginal lump, constipation, difficulty emptying the bowel or bladder or problems with sexual intercourse. Treatment is only indicated when the prolapse is symptomatic.
Office Surgical Treatment
Endometrial ablation is a medical procedure that is used to ablate or destroy the endometrial lining of the uterus. This technique is most often employed for people who suffer from excessive or prolonged bleeding during their menstrual cycle but cannot or do not wish to undergo a hysterectomy. The procedure is most commonly done on an outpatient basis. Pregnancy is contraindicated after having an ablation as it can be dangerous for both the developing fetus and mother.
A colposcopy is a non-invasive procedure in which a colposcope is used to view changes on the surface of the cervix. The colposcope, which sits outside the body, provides a magnified view of the cervix. A small sample of tissue may be removed if the provider decides it is necessary. This simple exam takes only minutes.
“LEEP” is an abbreviation for loop electrosurgical excision procedure. It is a way to test and treat abnormal cell growth on the surface tissue of the cervix. LEEP may be recommended after abnormal changes in the cervix are confirmed by Pap tests and colposcopy biopsies. LEEP allows your physician to remove the abnormal tissue and test it for cancer.